Andhra History
Sunny • onDid You Know 9 years ago • 6 min read

HISTORY

Knowledge of the Andhra history has come through examination of the numerous evidences stating that Andhra Kingdom & Kalinga Kingdom exists; where Andhra kingdom covering Rayalaseema, Telangana and some parts of Costa and Kalinga kingdom covering from Godavari districts to Karagphur.

The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive and powerful empire in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 B.C.E. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic plains (modern Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bengal) in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent, the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (modern Patna).

The Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India. At its greatest extent, the Empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the Himalayas, and to the east stretching into what is now Assam. To the west, it reached beyond modern Pakistan, annexing Balochistan and much of what is now Afghanistan, including the modern Herat and Kandahar provinces. The Empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara, but it excluded a small portion of unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga.

Kalinga Kingdom was an early kingdom in central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Odissa / Utkal, as well as some northern areas of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh (Godavari districts, Vizag, Vijayanagaram, Srikakulam). It was a rich and fertile land that extended from the river Damodar / Ganga to Godavari and from Bay of Bengal to Amarkantak range in the West. This region was scene of the bloody Kalinga War fought by the Maurya Emperor Ashoka the Great of Magadha circa 265 BCE.

The Sātavāhana Empire also known as Andhras were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar (Pune), Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra and Kotilingala (Karimnagar) in Andhra Pradesh over Southern and Central India from around 230 BCE onward. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years, until around 220 CE. The Satavahanas are credited for establishing peace in the country, resisting the onslaught of foreigners after the decline of Mauryan empire.

The Vengi Chalukyas kingdom extended (600 C.E to 1100 C.E) from the Godavari River in the north to Mount Mahendragiri in the southeast and to just south of the banks of River Krishna in the south of India. This area was part of Kalinga until that kingdom was conquered by Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire in the mid 200s BC, by the invasion of Ashok over Kaligadesam (Kalinga War 265 BC or 263 BC). Vengi has occupied a prominent place in the history of Andhra Pradesh since the time of Eastern Chalukyas. They patronised Telugu.

Between 1135 and 1206 C.E., several other minor kingdoms ruled over parts of Andhra Pradesh accepting the authority of the Velanati Cholas. By 1208 C.E., Vengi was part of Kakatiya Empire and later became part of the Vijayanagara Empire in 14th century C.E.

The Kakatiya dynasty was an Indian dynasty that ruled most parts of that is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 CE to 1323 CE. It was one of the great Telugu kingdoms that lasted for centuries. They are the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. It is around this period that the Golconda fort was constructed, as well as beautiful temples in the Kakatiya art. The most prominent ruler in this dynasty was Rani Rudrama Devi 1262-1289 CE, one of the few queens in Indian history.

The conquest of South India (Deccan) by the Delhi Sultanate started in 1296 CE when Alauddin Khilji and defeated. The second attempt was made in 1309 CE by Malik Kafur who managed to capture Siripur and Hanumakonda forts. Warangal fort was taken after a prolonged seize. Tughlaq sent his son Ulugh Khan in 1323 CE

to defeat the defiant Kakatiya king. Ulugh Khan’s (Muhammad bin Tughluq) raid was repulsed but he returned in a month with a larger and determined army. The unprepared and battle-weary army of Warangal was finally defeated, and King Prataparudra(grandson of Rudrama Devi) was taken prisoner. He committed suicide by drowning himself in the river Narmada, while being taken to Delhi.

The Vijayanagara Empire referred as the Kingdom of Bisnaga by the Portuguese, was a South Indian empire based in the Deccan Plateau. Established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I, it lasted until 1646 although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara.

The Qutb Shahi dynasty was the ruling family of the sultanate of Golkonda in southern India. He conquered Golkonda and became the Governor of Telangana region in 1518, after the disintegration of the Bahmani sultanate into the five Deccan sultanates. Soon after, he declared independence from the Bahmani sultanate, took title Qutb Shah, and established Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda. The dynasty ruled for 171 years, until the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb's army conquered Golkonda in 1687.

The Mughal Empire was an Islamic imperial power that ruled the Indian subcontinent which began in 1526, invaded and ruled most of Hindustan (South Asia) by the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and ended in the mid-19th century. Zaheeruddin Babur was founder of the Mughal Dynasty. After Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the empire fell into decline. The Mughal Emperors were descendants of the Timurids, and at the height of their power around 1700, they controlled most of the Indian Subcontinent — extending from Bengal in the east to Balochistan in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri basin in the south.

Hyderābād state was the largest princely state in the erstwhile British Indian Empire. It was located in the south-central region of the Indian subcontinent, and was ruled, from 1724 until 1948, by a hereditary Nizam. The Berar region of the state was merged with the Central Provinces of British India in 1903, to form the Central Provinces and Berar.

The British Indian Empire (British Raj) is the name given to the period of British colonial rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; it can also refer to the dominion itself, and even the region under the rule.The British Raj extended over all regions of present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. In addition, at various times, it included Aden Colony (from 1858 to 1937), Lower Burma (from 1858 to 1937), Upper Burma (from 1886 to 1937), British Somaliland (briefly from 1884 to 1898), and Singapore (briefly from 1858 to 1867).

In 1947, at the time of the partition of India and the formation of the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan, the then Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, decided not to join either new nation. However, the following year, the Government of India incorporated Hyderabad into the Indian Union, using military force, in what was known as Operation Polo, led by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

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