Diabetes is a medical disorder that is characterized by different degrees of hyperglycemia and high blood sugar. This usually occurs after meals in diabetic persons. All types of diabetes have similar symptoms in common, and complications similar to advanced stages of diabetes.
Long-term complications of diabetes include cardiovascular disease, which is duplicated in patients with diabetes, chronic renal failure, retinal damage, nerve damage and even gangrene. Renal failure is the main reason that some diabetic patients go on dialysis. Retinal damage can, in severe cases, cause blindness. Nerve damage has been known to contribute to erectile dysfunction. In cases of severe circulatory problems that lead to gangrene, patients had to have their fingers, feet and legs amputated same.
In the most important forms of diabetes is a disease caused by decreased production of complete absence of insulin or a decreased sensitivity of body tissues to insulin. The last type of diabetes known as type II, and the former as type I diabetes and requires regular insulin injections for survival. Type II diabetes is usually treated with weight reduction, diet and exercise, approximately 20% of diabetes cases. Many cases require these elements, as well as oral medication for diabetes.
Diabetes is different from living with other chronic disease, as it requires a lot of patient understanding and participation, as glucose change constantly. Treatments to maintain normal levels of blood sugar can reduce or prevent the development of many complications associated with diabetes.
There are many other health problems and concerns that exacerbate the damaging effects of diabetes. These include high cholesterol, obesity, smoking, high blood pressure and lack of regular exercise. The patients who started regular exercise programs and make an attempt to cut refined sugar and other foods high glucose have seen marked results both in weight and diabetes symptoms within a few weeks.
Deficiency of insulin or its production plays a major role in all forms of diabetes, since insulin is the principal hormone that regulates glucose uptake in cells of the blood. The majority of carbohydrates in foods are quickly converted into glucose, which is the main sugar in the blood. Beta cells produce insulin in the pancreas as a response to increased levels of blood glucose after carbohydrate consumption.
Insulin is what makes it possible for most body tissues to remove glucose from the blood for use as fuel for conversion to other needed molecules, or for storage. Insulin is the principal control signal for the conversion of glucose, which is the basic unit of sugar, for storage of glycogen in muscle and liver cells. Low levels of insulin results in the reverse conversion of glycogen to glucose when glucose falls. But the glucose is produced in the liver in this way goes to the bloodstream. Insulin is the principal signal in converting many bidirectional processes of metabolism from a catabolic to an anabolic direction.
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