Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce insulin or properly use. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas, an organ near the stomach. Insulin is needed to turn sugar and other food into energy. Three major forms of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes (occurring during pregnancy), which have similar signs, symptoms and consequences, but different causes and population distributions.
Ultimately, all forms are due to pancreatic beta cells are unable to produce enough insulin to prevent hyperglycemia. Type 1 is usually due to self-destruction of pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin. Type 2 is characterized by tissue wide insulin resistance and varies widely, but sometimes progressing to loss of function of beta cells. Gestational diabetes is similar to type 2 diabetes, since it involves insulin resistance; hormones of pregnancy cause insulin resistance in those women genetically predisposed to develop this disease.
People with pre-diabetes are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Gestational diabetes also involves a combination of insufficient insulin secretion and sensitivity, resembling type 2 diabetes in several respects. It develops during pregnancy and may improve or disappear after delivery. Insulin is the so-called "hunger hormone".
Causes of diabetes mellitus: Glucose in most cells in the blood (primarily muscle cells and fat cells, but not central nervous system), insulin deficiency or insensitivity of its receptors plays a central role in all forms of diabetes mellitus. Most of the carbohydrates in food are converted within a few hours to the monosaccharide glucose, the main carbohydrate found in blood. Diabetes mellitus type 1 formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM), childhood diabetes or also known as juvenile diabetes, is characterized by loss of beta cell insulin-producing islets in the pancreas leading to insulin deficiency. The main cause of loss of beta cells leading to type 1 diabetes is a T cell-mediated auto-attack. Diabetes mellitus type 2 previously known as adult onset diabetes, the maturity of early diabetes.
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus: 1.Drowsiness. 2.Nausea. 3.Decreased endurance during exercise
Treatment of diabetes mellitus: People with diabetes keep levels of blood sugar tightly controlled; complications are less likely to develop. People with diabetes should always carry or wear a medical identification bracelet or tag to alert health professionals to the presence of diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes who are able to maintain a healthy weight may be able to avoid the need for large doses of insulin. People with diabetes also tend to have high levels of cholesterol in the blood, thus limiting the amount of saturated fat in the diet is important. Drugs may also be needed to help control the level of cholesterol in the blood. Diet management is very important for people with both types of diabetes. Doctors recommend a healthy, balanced diet and efforts to maintain a healthy weight. Some people benefit from a meeting with the nutritionist to develop an optimal eating plan.
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