Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in the United States. It is estimated that over 16 million Americans are already caught with diabetes, and 5.4 million diabetics are not aware of the existing disease. Diabetes prevalence has increased steadily in the last half of this century and will continue rising among U.S. population. It is believed to be one of the main criterions for deaths in United States, every year. This diabetes information hub projects on the necessary steps and precautions to control and eradicate diabetes, completely.
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where in human body does not produce or properly uses insulin, a hormone that is required to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by constant high levels of blood glucose (sugar). Human body has to maintain the blood glucose level at a very narrow range, which is done with insulin and glucagon. The function of glucagon is causing the liver to release glucose from its cells into the blood, for the production of energy.
There are three main types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Gestational diabetes
Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes impede a person’s carefree life. When breakdown of glucose is stopped completely, body uses fat and protein for producing the energy. Due to this mechanism symptoms like polydipsia, polyuria, polyphegia, and excessive weightloss can be observed in a diabetic. Desired blood sugar of human body should be between 70 mg/dl -110 mg/dl at fasting state. If blood sugar is less than 70 mg/dl, it is termed as hypoglycemia and if more than 110 mg /dl, it’s hyperglycemia.
Diabetes is the primary reason for adult blindness, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), gangrene and amputations. Overweight, lack of exercise, family history and stress increase the likelihood of diabetes. When blood sugar level is constantly high it leads to kidney failure, cardiovascular problems and neuropathy. Patients with diabetes are 4 times more likely to have coronary heart disease and stroke. In addition, Gestational diabetes is more dangerous for pregnant women and their fetus.
Though, Diabetes mellitus is not completely curable but, it is controllable to a great extent. So, you need to have thorough diabetes information to manage this it successfully. The control of diabetes mostly depends on the patient and it is his/her responsibility to take care of their diet, exercise and medication.
Having a healthy and well-balanced diet
The diet of a diabetic patient is limited to the number of calories they have to take in order to keep their blood sugar levels in check. This does not necessarily mean that the food that you eat should have no taste and appeal. It just means that the patient should learn to eat healthy foods like fruits and vegetables instead of unhealthy junk foods and fast foods. These healthy foods are high in nutrition and yet give a little amount of calories and fat, allowing you to have your fill of it. But of course, anything in excess is always detrimental to ones health.
Regular exercise is not only beneficial in lowering down blood sugar levels but of other substances such as cholesterol and triglycerides. It is also good for the normal functioning of the heart and lungs. Consult your health provider first before undergoing any exercise regimen so as to be able to monitor your blood sugar levels from going below and giving you hyperglycemia. Any type of sport such as jogging, tennis, and swimming can help lower sugar levels as well as increase your body's health. You can have minimum of thirty minutes of activity everyday which you may increase as your body becomes accustomed to it.
Medications are prescribed when diet and exercise is not enough to control the blood sugar levels. Mainly, it is insulin that is given to lower blood sugar levels down. Insulin is given intramuscularly, through insulin injections or an insulin pump. This is a small device that pumps the needed insulin into the body without the hassle and pain of injection. But this is not prescribed for everyone.
Other medications include sulfonylurea drugs which try to stimulate the production of insulin by the pancreas, Meglitinides, Biguanides, Metformin or commonly known as Glucophage, Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors that act on the digestive enzymes for carbohydrates by inhibiting them and regulating the entry of sugar into the blood stream, thiazolidinediones that makes the cells more receptive to insulin and the stops the liver from releasing excessive amounts of glucose, and the combination of several drugs in order to control blood sugar in the best possible way.
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