Hypertension is a disease of different causes and which is manifested by the sustained increase in blood pressure and this increase in hypertension treatment is very susceptible to more diseases we present, then the stages, symptoms, prevention methods, and another...
What is Hypertension?
Hypertension is a disease of diverse causes. And which is manifested by sustained increases in blood pressure in systole and in diastole, or both.
The increase in blood pressure (hypertension) is a major cause, but most likely treatment of disease, and is divided into primary and secondary. In the general population, blood pressure is a continuous variable and its increase is associated with an increased risk of disease. Hypertension can be defined arbitrarily as a sustained diastolic pressure greater than 90 mm Hg, however, there is no risk of developing diseases in which blood pressure is a pathogenic factor.
Primary hypertension (essential) is the elevation of blood pressure with age, but without apparent cause.
It represents over 85-90 % of cases and usually appears after age 40, the phenotype of high blood pressure in hypertension due to an interaction between genetic predisposition, obesity, alcohol consumption, physical activity and other factors not yet identified.
Secondary hypertension, which represents about 10-15 % of cases, is due to an identifiable cause, the most common vascular disease reindeer, which raises blood pressure by activating the rennin aldosterone system. Depending on their clinical evolution, both the primary and secondary hypertension can be classified into two types. In benign hypertension there is a steady rise in blood pressure for many years, while in hypertension accelerated the elevation of blood pressure is intense and worsens in a short period of time. Factors that regulate blood pressure
The blood pressure may rise because of increased cardiac output or peripheral vascular resistance. The first rises to increase blood volume or contractility and heart rate, the second can be increased by humeral factors, neural and regulatory authorities.
According to the degree of organ damage occurred, hypertension can be found at different stages:
PHASE I: No functional changes.
PHASE II: The patient is one of the following signs, even if you are asymptomatic.
a) Left ventricular hypertrophy.
b) Angelology retinal arteries.
c) Mild elevation creativity.
d) Arterial plaques in carotid, aorta, iliac and Femoral.
PHASE III: symptomatic manifestations of organ damage:
a) Angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or heart failure.
b) Transient cerebral ischemia, cerebral thrombosis or hypertensive encephalopathy.
c) Exudates and retinal hemorrhages
d) Chronic renal failure.
e) Aortic aneurysm or atherosclerosis bitterns of lower limbs.
The arterial wall thickening and arteriolosclerosis are signs of mild hypertension
In hypertension benign vascular changes occur gradually in response to stable and sustained hypertension. These degenerative changes in the walls of small vessels such as arterioles decrease the effective light with. Consequent tissue ischemia and increased vascular fragility in the brain, with the risk of bleeding.
In malignant hypertension there is a destruction of the walls of small vessels
When blood pressure rises too abruptly, acute destructive changes occur in the walls of small blood vessels, along with remedial responses proliferate in the walls of small arteries.
These alterations cause lack of blood flow through small vessels, with formation of multiple focus of necrosis, e.g. in renal glomerulus’s.
• Stopping smoking reduces mortality to half of those who continue to smoke. • Control high blood pressure. • Reduction of body weight. • Increase physical activity. • Controlling diabetes • Modification of eating habits.
The onset can be sudden, such as acute myocardial infarction or may be a chronic disorder, with increased loss of heart function. In turn this may be offset where disease activity remains normal or decompensated, in which the patient suffers from dyspnea and chest pain in this case should rest and receive medication and diuretics.
From a nutritional standpoint the most important is the implementation of a low sodium diet (containing less than 5grs. of salt a day).
In coronary disease should avoid large meals and plentiful because they impose an excessive burden on the heart and circulation.
When making food choices for these patients should seek to replace the salt and no abdominal distension, constipation or flatulence.
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