The infertility is the impossibility of conceive a child naturally or carry a pregnancy term after a year of becoming sexually active.
Female Infertility Some factors related to female infertility are:
General factors o Diabetes mellitus, Problems Thyroid, Diseases adrenal o Liver, diseases renal o Psychological factors
Hypothalamic-pituitary factors: o Hypothalamic dysfunction o Hyperprolactinemia o Hypopituitarism
Ovarian Factors o Polycystic ovary syndrome o An ovulation o Diminished ovarian reserve o Dysfunction luteal o Menopause early o Gonadal dysgenesis (Turner syndrome) o Ovarian neoplasm
Tubal / peritoneal Factors o Endometriosis o Pelvic adhesions o Pelvic inflammatory disease o Tubal occlusion
Uterine Factors o Uterine malformations o Uterine fibroids
Cervical factors o occlusion Cervical o Anti-sperm antibodies. o Insufficient cervical mucus (for the movement and survival of sperm)
- Factors vaginal o Vaginismus o Vaginal obstruction
- Genetic factors o Various intersexes conditions, such as the syndrome Androgen insensitivity
Some factors associated with male infertility are:
* Pre-testicular causes o Endocrine problems, such as diabetes mellitus or thyroid problems o Hypothalamic disorders o Hyperprolactinemia o Hypopituitarism o Hypogonadism due to various causes o Psychological factors o Drugs, alcohol * Testicular factors o Genetic defects in the Y chromosome o Micro-deletions of Y chromosome. o Abnormal set of chromosomes o Neoplasia o Idiopathic failure o Cryptorchidism o Varicocele o trauma o Hydrosols o Testicular digenesis syndrome * Post-testicular causes o Infection (eg, prostatitis) o Retrograde ejaculation o Hypospadias o Impotence o Acrosomal defect / egg penetration defect * Consumption of snuff o Smoking is one of the prominent factors that contribute to low sperm counts in men.
Some causes of male infertility can be determined by analysis of ejaculation, which contains the sperm. The analysis consists of counting the number of sperm and measuring their mobility under a microscope:
* Low sperm production, Oligospermia or no sperm, azoospermia. * A sample of sperm is normal in number but shows low mobility, or asthenozoospermia.
In most cases of male infertility and low sperm quality there is no clear cause can be identified with current diagnostic methods. It has been speculated that mutations of the Y chromosome may be an important factor. To the extent that the Y chromosome passed from father to son, is not protected from copying errors, while others are self-correcting chromosomes recombining genetic information from mother and father. This may leave natural selection as the main repair mechanism for chromosome Y. Y chromosome micro deletions have been found in a percentage significantly higher in infertile men than in fertile controls and the correlation found can still go with the improvement of techniques of genetic analysis for Y chromosome develop.
Combined infertility: In some cases, both men and women can be infertile or sub fertile, and infertility in couples is presented as a combination of these conditions. In other cases, it is suspected that the cause is immune or genetic, can people be independent both fertile but the couple can not conceive together without assistance.
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