Infertility in women is the inability to conceive or inability to get pregnant. There are two kinds of infertility that is primary and secondary. Primary infertility is when the woman has never been able to get pregnant after trying for at least one year. Secondary infertility is when the woman has been pregnant before, but has not been able to conceive again. The human reproductive process is a complex and complicated process. For a woman to get pregnant, ovulation and fertilization processes need to work perfectly.
The process of ovulation happens every month when the pituitary gland in the woman sends a signal to the ovaries to prepare an egg for ovulation. This phase is when the woman is fertile and is approximately around the 14th day of a 28 day menstrual cycle in a woman. The released egg can now be fertilized and a woman can conceive if she has sexual intercourse one or two days before ovulation. The sperm fertilizes the egg if it reaches the egg. The woman’s vagina and uterus must be healthy enough to aid the sperm to travel and reach the egg. If this process does not work this way, infertility occurs and the causes of infertility in women are as follows:
Fallopian tube: The most cause of infertility in women is the blockage or damage of the fallopian tube. This may be caused by an inflammation caused by some kind of disease like Chlamydia. This is the most common cause and is a sexually transmitted disease. The tubal infection may cause infertility.
Ovulation Disorders: Infertility in women may be due to ovulation disorders. Imbalances of the hormones that regulate ovulation can result in prevention of the release of the egg from the ovary. Some of the causes of the hormonal disorders are due to injury, certain medications, excessive exercising or tumors.
Endometriosis: When the uterine tissue implants and grows outside the uterus, it is known as endometriosis. This can affect the fallopian tube, uterus and ovaries and lead to inflammation and scarring. This is one of the infertility in women causes.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: In this condition, excess androgen production affects ovulation.
Menopause: Early menopause causes infertility in women.
Hyperprolactinemia: The presence of prolactin in high levels in women who are not nursing may affect the process of ovulation.
The other reasons could be cancer, medical issues, thyroid problems or certain medications.
Treatments are available for infertility in women. Some of them are as follows:
Human menopausal gonadotropin: hMG is a medication for women who cannot ovulate on their own.
Clomiphene: This is an oral drug which helps to stimulate ovulation.
FSH: This hormone stimulates the ovaries to mature the egg.
HCG: This is used with hMG and FSH to enhance ovulation.
The other treatments include Glucophage, Aromatase inhibitors, Parlodel, surgery and assisted reproductive technology like IVF, Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Vibratory stimulation and assisted hatching. The injectable drugs used for treating infertility may cause multiple pregnancies and the use of such drugs requires close attention.
The factors which put a woman at risk for infertility are age, alcohol, smoking, obesity, poor nutrition, excessive exercising and caffeine. A woman can increase her chances of conceiving by avoiding alcohol, smoking and drugs. She should exercise moderately and avoid weight extremes. Limit your intake of caffeine and the medications. These steps can prevent infertility in women.
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