Kidney stones are solid concretions or calculi (crystal aggregations) formed in the kidneys from dissolved urinary minerals.It typically leave the body by passage in the urine stream, and many stones are formed and passed without causing symptoms.
Man expels the urine large amounts of calcium salts, uric acid, phosphate, oxalate, cystine, and possibly other substances such as penicillin and diuretics. In some conditions the urine is saturated these crystals and consequently formed calculations. It is a rare phenomenon until the age of 70 years. Approximately 15% of men and 8% of women may have at least one assessment during their lives. The first decade of life is not immune to the emergence of calculations, with a peak incidence between four and seven years old. The disease is most common in young adults, around the 3rd or 4th decade of life, predominantly in white and there was no gender difference. Recurrence is more common in young adults, 15% in one year, 40% within 5 years and 50% within 10 years. The black population is less kidney stone than the white.
What is it? The stone formation is a complex biological process, yet little known, despite the considerable progress already made. Today, it is clear that changes in diet, promoted by the industrialization of food rich in protein, salt and carbohydrates, increased stone formation.
Abnormalities of the urinary composition have, in urine volume decreased, the main factor in stone formation. Result of an inadequate hydration, this may be the only change found in some patients with gallstones. The urine volume permanently less than 1 liter is by bad eating habits or environmental situations such as very dry climate, activity in dry environments (airplanes, blast furnaces) that favor the supersaturating of urinary salts forming calculations.
Some components of kidney stones: CALCIUM: More than eighty percent of patients forming calcium stones. Most of these have increased calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria) and / or increased calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia).
MAGNESIUM: It is an element that participates in the urine as an inhibitor of crystallization. So when the urinary magnesium is less than 50 mg/24 h, the formation of calculation can be facilitated.
URIC ACID: The calculations of pure uric acid occur in about 5% of the world, aside from the Mediterranean and Arab countries, where rates can reach up to 30%. Twenty-five percent of patients may present gouty uric acid stones.
What you feel and how is it diagnosed? The stones can be asymptomatic and recognized only in occasional surveys. In most cases, the stones presents with pain (colic) and hematuria. Often, the calculations can block the urinary tract. Renal colic is a symptom of acute severe pain, which may require treatment with strong painkillers. Generally, the colic is associated with nausea, vomiting, restlessness. Colic often starts in the lumbar region, radiating to the lower abdomen, testicles and vagina. Urinary sediment can be observed that hematuria, with colic pain, allows us to think of the passage of a calculation. Clinical research in the acute phase also includes the standard urine test, an abdominal radiographs and abdominal ultrasound.
Major complications of kidney stones Urinary infection Urinary obstruction: loss of kidney destruction of obstructive and / or infectious Chronic renal failure Hypertension Surgical complications of withdrawals from the calculations Complications of lithotripsy (hematuria, destruction of renal tissue, hypertension)
How is it?
Drinking plenty of fluids is the main element of the treatment, to reduce the concentration and super saturation of urinary crystals, and thus decrease the formation of stones.
The ideal treatment is to suppress and prevent recurrence of the existing stones grow. As the calculations have heterogeneous origins and manifestations are often multi-systemic disease, it is impossible to have a single regimen. Therefore, the treatment is varied and lengthy.
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