The liver is the most voluminous internal organs of the body and one of the most important in terms of metabolic activity of the organism. Plays unique and vital functions such as protein synthesis (assimilation), production of bile (necessary for digestion and absorption of fats), detoxifying function, vitamin store, glycogen, and so on.
The liver is located in the region of right upper quadrant of the abdomen (usually does not exceed the limit of the costal margin), filling the space diagrammatical dome, where it can reach up to the fifth rib, and relates to the heart through the center phrenic to the left of the inferior vena cava.
Usually it is soft and pitting, and is covered by a fibrous capsule. On this fibrous capsule is applied to the greatest bearing peritoneum of the liver surface (except in the bare area of liver).
Macroscopically is divided into four lobes: 1. Right lobe, the most voluminous. 2. Left lobe, extended on the stomach. 3. Square, at the base, smaller than previous ones, between the fosse of the gallbladder and the round ligament. 4. Caudate lobe, located at the rear of the base of the liver, between the groove of the inferior vena cava and the fissure of venous ligament.
The liver is primarily associated with structures located on the right side of the abdomen, many of which leave an impression on the underside of the right lobe of the liver. Thus we have back and forth the impression colonic, duodenal impression, bonded to the fosse cystic renal printing and less marked. On the underside of the left lobe are printing gastric and esophageal indentation in the rear edge. Relations with the diaphragm and heart surrounding organs complete liver.
The structure of the liver will follow closely the divisions of the portal vein. After the split in segmental branches, the branches of the portal vein, accompanied by the hepatic artery and division of the hepatic ducts, are found together in the portal tract (vein interlobular, interlobar artery and interlobular ducts).
The lymphatic drainage of the liver is provided by vessels that flowed into the inferior vena cava or hepatic lymph following the reverse route of the hepatic artery.
The nerve supply also comes from the celiac plexus that supplies the liver, a mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers. These nerves reaching the liver along the hepatic artery.
The liver performs multiple functions in the body such as: * Production of bile: The liver excretes bile into the bile duct and thence to the duodenum. Bile is necessary for the digestion of food. * Metabolism of carbohydrates: * Elimination of insulin and other hormones. * Lipid Metabolism: Synthesis of cholesterol. Production of triglycerides. * Synthesis of clotting factors such as fibrinogen * Neutralization of toxins, most drugs and hemoglobin. * Transformation of ammonia into urea. * Deposit of many substances such as glucose as glycogen, vitamin B12, iron, copper ...
Liver Diseases: * Hepatitis * Cirrhosis * Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
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