Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) medical disorder characterized by variable (unstable) or persistent (permanent), hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), especially after meals.
The term "diabetes" comes from the Greek word meaning "passing through, siphon, and siphon". "Mellitus" comes from Greek and means "sweet".
Blood sugar / glucose = monosaccharide, one of the most important carbohydrates. Cells use it as an energy source and metabolitického agent. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis in plants and at the beginning of cellular respiration. Is critical in the production of proteins and lipid metabolism.
Hormone insulin is produced by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas
. It is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. It is used in medicine for certain forms of diabetes mellitus (diabetes).
Types of diabetes
There are 2 types of diabetes: • Diabetes type 1 - insulin-dependent diabetes • Type 2 diabetes - insulin-resistant diabetes
• Genetics, heredity (mostly in diabetes type 2) • Compliance / consistency between monozygotic twins • Infection, stress, environmental factors - diabetes type 1 • Mutation • Obesity • Lifestyle (lack of exercise, poor diet etc.) • Lack of insulin or its effects
The main signs and symptoms
• Usually asymptomatic • Or unusual thirst • Frequent urination • Feeling hungry all the time • Weight loss • Blurred vision • Feeling very tired • Frequent infections • Slow healing wounds and sore points
The main diagnostic tests of diabetes
• FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose) • OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test)
Tips to control and manage diabetes
• Work closely with your doctor. • Set your health goals and plans, how to care for diabetes. • Follow the diet and exercise plan. Learn about the benefits of exercise and healthy eating. • If you're overweight, lose weight. • Check your blood glucose (sugar) levels. Recommended targets for blood sugar is 100 mg / dl or less before breakfast 140 mg / dl or less two hours after meals. • Go for regular examinations, including tests, blood pressure checks, blood fat tests, urinalysis, scratches, wounds, nevyrastené nails, or loss of feeling; eye examination every year. • Take care and just medicine for diabetes.
PPG - post meal plasma (blood) glucose test
PPG test is usually performed 2 hours after meals. Measured how much blood sugar levels increased due to food that has just been swallowed. This test can be performed at home as well as monitoring the effectiveness of treatment. Recommended blood sugar after meals is below 140 mg / dl.
FPG - fasting plasma (blood) glucose
The test is usually done in the morning on an empty stomach, after many a night (no food for 8 hours or more). This test is suitable for observing the effectiveness of treatment.
HbA1c - glycosylated hemoglobin
Test, on which doctors rely to see how therapy works, since this test is the average of both PPG and FPG test. Tell your doctor if blood sugar was under control during the past three months, and the recording of HbA1c levels.
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