There are three main types of neurons. The sensory neurons, which are associated with specialized receptors to detect and respond to different stimuli, the internal and external environment. These receptors are sensitive to changes in light, sound; mechanical and chemical stimuli serve the sense of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste.
When mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli to the skin exceed a certain intensity, can cause destruction of tissue, which activates a special class of receptors, the nociceptors (pain receptors). These receptors activate both protective reflexes and the sensation of pain (see Chapter 5 on Touch and Pain). The motor neurons, which control the activity of muscles involved in all kinds of behavior, including speech.
Among the sensory and motor neurons are inserted interneurons. These cells constitute the majority of cells in the human brain. These interneurons mediate simple reflexes but also participate in the higher brain functions. The glial cells, which have long believed that they were purely supportive role to neurons, we now know that they contribute significantly to the development of the nervous system and the functioning of the adult brain. While there are more in number, and transmit the information in the same way as the transmitting neurons
The brain can be affected by many diseases. Some of them are neurogenetic diseases such as muscular dystrophy and the disease of Huntington. Degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease is devastating. Alzheimer's has become quite common in the western world and causes dementia. This is due to atrophy of the cerebral cortex and forebrain areas. Parkinson's disease is caused by the slowing of voluntary movements, and one can notice the terror stricken face, even while at rest.
Stroke and vascular dementia types of cerebrovascular diseases. Gaucher disease is a kind of metabolic disease. Brain tumors are damaging to the nervous system and diseases like AIDS can wreck havoc on the system. The spinal cord is thin and can be destroyed by accident damaged, which can be compressed, or completely cut off. Cysts, multiple sclerosis and cervical spondylosis spinal cord injury may also affect the proper function.
The most common types of diseases in the peripheral nervous system, namely, Amyloid neuropathies, diabetic neuropathy, brachial plexus neuropathies, Mononeuropathies, peripheral nervous system neoplasms, neuritis, syndrome, nerve compression syndrome, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome and polyneuropathy. These diseases affect the autonomic nerves, nerve roots, sensory nerves, ganglia, and motor nerves. The affected person, although aware of the situation may be able to do anything about it. So it is very important to seek medical care in the early stages of these diseases.
The simplest and most effective way to relax is to take deep breaths. One of the most effective ways to learn the art of breathing is to do yoga. The basic level one Yoga teaches proper procedure to breathe right. Some courses of Yoga will do controlled, slow and deep breathing part of life. This not only helps one relax, but also helps to cleanse the system, relieve stress and help correct functioning of some endocrine glands.
Some essential oils such as Petitgrain, Orange, Thyme, Lemongrass Clarysage and will help relax the mind. By adding a few drops each of these aromatic oils with the bath water will help you relax.
When one exercises, it is important to get the nervous system to relax after. Some find that exercise late at night keeps them awake at night. Thus, exercise in the morning is a better idea. Also, to get a good night sleep can try a cup of warm milk and a hot bath.
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